The ancient period
The first traces of human activity on the territory of Kyrgyzstan goes back to the early Paleolithic period. The first mark of its time was a monument of stone tools found by A.P.Okladnikovym in 1953 in the Central Tien Shan, on the left bank of the River On-Archa. The technique that was used on these tools indicates that they were made about 300 thousand years ago. A similar tool making technique was found in Khoja Bakyrgan-Sai in the south of Kyrgyzstan.
Nomadic people occupied Central Asia during last thousand years B.C. and they were called – “Sakas”. They were warlike tribes that played an active role in political developments in Central Asia, first millennium B.C.
In the third century BC, territory of Central Asia was dominated by the empire of the Huns. In 201 BC, Mode (Maodun) overseen Gegun (Kyrgyz), which was located then in the Eastern Tien Shan. Power of Maodunya was an important initial milestone in the history of the Kyrgyz people: in Chinese chronicles in 201 was the first time ethnonym “Kyrgyz” was mentioned.
Saks successors were Usuns. After taking the Seven Rivers, Dzungaria and Central Tien Shan, they have created one of the oldest states. Usun ruler Kyunbag ,71 BC, formed an alliance with the Khan empire, and together they defeated the Huns. During that time Kyrgyzstan was a state of Davan Emprie in the Fergana Valley. Davan (in Old Persian sources – parkana) was a densely populated empire. It was known for its famous Ferghana horses, which China tried to get for their own cavalry.
In the middle of the VI century in the Altai, Turk Empire (551-744) was formed. In 70 A.D., the empire reached the pinnacle of its power, its territory stretched from the North Khingan to the plains from the upper reaches of the Yenisei River to the headwaters of the Amu Darya. In the yea 603 there was an official part of the Turkic power in the East and West kaganats.
The West-Khanate (603-704) occupied a vast territory – from East Turkestan to the foothills of the Tien Shan and Semirechye to the North Caucasus. Administrative divisions, political, and the main shopping center was Suyab (ruins of Ak-Beshim near city of Tokmak).
With the collapse of the West-khanate, Turgesh Khanate (704-746) was formed in year 746. It invaded Karluk. Karluk was a state that consisted of a strong alliance of nomadic tribes. It was marked by the domination of Karluk Kaganate on the Seven Rivers and the Tien Shan. During this period, people in South Siberia began to move up to Yenisei river, eventually reaching Kyrgyz State. As a result of the 20-year war against the Uighurs (820-841), the Kyrgyz came out victorious. The defeat of the Uighur khanate and the conquest of vast territories in Central Asia led to the creation of the Great Kyrgyz Kaganate.
With the formation of Karakhanid khanate (X- beg. XIII century) on the territory of Kyrgyzstan, Islamic culture began to spread. This brought a rapid rise of urban culture, writing, literature, and history. Great thinkers such as Zhusup Balasaguni and Mahmud Kashgar created their priceless works during this time.
Since the middle of XVII century to the middle of -XVIII. Kyrgyz defended their independence in relation invasion Jungar khanate.
In the mid 60-ies of the XVIII century. Southern Kyrgyz, and then in the 20-30-ies of XIX century. northern Kyrgyz, fell under the influence of the Kokand Khanate. At the end of XVIII and beginning of XIX centuries, tribes in the northern Kyrgyzstan began independently set contact with Russia. In 1785, the first delegate, Attack Baatyr, was sent to Russia from northern tribes.
In 1867, Kyrgyzstan started to operate Administrative divisions and territorial governance in Russia. Resettlement and tax policies of Russian Tsar worsen national and economic oppression. The first performance of the anti-colonial protests of Central Asia took place in the Fergana Valley in 1898 in the city of Andijan.
The accession process has led to a gradual change in the economy and economic structure of the Kyrgyz people. They started studying geography, nature, history and culture of the of their own ancestors, which is a progressive phenomenon. However, the colonial policy of Russia led to an uprising in 1916, which ended in tragedy.
The Soviet period
The Great October Revolution (1917), in Russia, established socialist system – the right of peoples to self-determination and the formation of the Soviet Union, it became a historic turning point in the history of Kyrgyzstan.
With the formation of the Kara-Kyrgyz Autonomous Oblast (14 October 1924) began the development of Kyrgyz Soviet-style statehood, allowing no political complications purchase full sovereignty in 1991.
The era of socialism transformed Kyrgyzstan, it has made it an industrial-agrarian state. Diversified industry, construction industry and construction, transport, communications, technical equipment of agriculture, trade and other services have become an organic component part of a single economic complex of the republic. In general, it successfully solved the problem of employment and raised living standards.
Especially, Soviet regime developed the fuel and energy complex, in which the share of the coal industry in the 80 years went up to 40% of extracted coal in Central Asia. Antimony Kadamjay plant is a benchmark of quality in the international market. Products from Khaidarkan mercury plant were delivered to more than 40 countries. The leading role of income however was still played by agriculture livestock. Kyrgyzstan ranked third in the Soviet Union in absolute terms of sheep production, second only to the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan.
The rate of growth of national income has put Kyrgyzstan ahead of other Soviet republics such as Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Moldova, Turkmenistan and Estonia. They were equipped with modern conveniences and cities and towns, and the scientific and technological revolution has become not only an element of industrial development, but also of social aspects in all of Soviet Union.
It should be noted, Kyrgyz men were a factor in the Great Patriotic War by making a contribution in defending Moscow from Nazi’s attack, and the people of Kyrgyzstan; 360 thousand Kyrgyz men were sent to front. They fought bravely on all fronts, 73 were awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union, 21 were awarded the Order of Glory of three degrees. Kyrgyzstan has become a reliable bastion of a unified military and economic organism of the country evacuated businesses not only to recover, but also to expand its production capacity.
One of the main directions of cultural development was the elimination of illiteracy, the creation of a new education system, which successfully operated in universities and secondary specialized educational institutions and train skilled personnel. In the formation and development of science played a major role Kyrgyz branch of the USSR (1943), received the status of the Academy of Sciences in December 1954.
National professional literature begins with the creation of writing in the Kyrgyz language. A special place in the national and world literature belongs to Chingiz Aitmatov, whose works have been translated into more than 80 languages of the world. The successful development of the Kyrgyz culture got to professional art – theater, music, visual and cinematography.
Along with the undoubted positives, negatives Soviet period marked by the totalitarian regime, which led to the tragedy of many human lives.
Since 1991, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, a new page in the long history of the Kyrgyzstan has begun. On August 31, Kyrgyzstan declared itself a sovereign state and entered a phase of reform. The former totalitarian-authoritarian regime of the CPSU was replaced by authoritarian democratic state. Implementation of the principles of democratic governance, rather than the so-called public property (state) were introduced in various forms of private ownership. The planned economy changed the market, especially social homogeneity sharply differentiated. Communist ideology has given way to the bourgeois-liberal, collectivist consciousness.
In socio-political terms, the republic acquired all the attributes of a whole statehood; it has become an equal member of the world community. However, the gap of economic ties of the former Soviet Union had a negative impact on the socio-economic situation of the country. In connection with the increase in the inflation process in 1993 introduced the national currency (Som), which allowed it to lead an independent financial and monetary policy. In the same year it adopted the first Constitution of independent Kyrgyzstan. However, the shortcomings of market reforms have led to a high state budget deficit and the republic is becoming an agro-industrial, and about half the population is below the poverty line.
The high degree of corruption, and a sharp rise in crimine, along with authoritarian power led Kyrgyzstan twice to overthrow its regime of power (24 March 2005 and 7 April 2010.). After the transition of the Provisional Government of Kyrgyzstan established a parliamentary republic; Jogorku Kenesh given wide powers instead of allocating all power in the hands of one person.
Current Socio-economic situation makes it difficult for Kyrgyzstan to conduct a multi-vector policy, it establishes the necessary contacts with a view to the inflow of investments into the republic appropriate. However, Kyrgyzstan has become a member of the United Nations (UN), World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), UNESCO, the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO), the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) Organization of Islamic cooperation issues (OIC), the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO), the Cooperation Council of Turkic Speaking States (CCTS), making integration steps in the Customs Union, the Eurasian Economic Community, forging ties not only with the CIS, but also abroad.
In the spiritual life, the sovereign Kyrgyzstan has also undergone significant changes due to the process of democratization. In this regard, a series of laws in the field of education were created to adapt to the market economy. The negative effects of the economic crisis affected the activity of scientific institutions, but they are including the Academy of Sciences, still trying to adapt to these difficult conditions and concentrate on solving the priority directions of development in Science. For the spiritual revival of society it has crucial respect for its cultural heritage, in particular, to a masterpiece of oral folklore – the epic “Manas”.
However, it should be noted the fact that the negative trends particularly affected the sphere of culture, which virtually survives on sponsorship of international organizations. Nevertheless, the State, in spite of some difficulties, yet has taken several measures to establish its regulatory in its own new framework.